Pronouns are words used as replacement or substitute for a noun or a noun phrase. Personal pronouns are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person and take different forms depending on number (singular or plural), grammatical or natural gender, case, and formality. Personal pronouns are not limited to people, they can also refer to animals and objects.
Here are some examples:
- Marcela is pretty – She is pretty.
- My brothers are playing – They are playing.
- The book is new – It is new.
Look at Grammar Box 1.
We use indefinite pronouns to refer to people or things without saying exactly who or what they are. We use pronouns ending in -body or -one for people, and pronouns ending in -thing for things. Look at the following examples:
Everybody enjoyed the concert.
I opened the door but there was no one at home.
It was a very clear day. We could see everything.
Indefinite pronouns can be used to talk about people without saying their name or using a personal pronoun. Look at the following examples:
- Julia told me about this book.
- Somebody told me about this book.
Verb To Be
The verb To Be is used to talk about what somebody is. It is one of the commonly used verbs in the english language. In spanish it means ser o estar. In Grammar Box 2 you will see how to use the verb To Be in the simplest form.
When we are learning a new language, numbers are one of the most important things to learn in order to give personal information such as your telephone number and your address.
Aft er the number 20 you add the numbers from 1 to 9 to make a bigger number. For example: twenty-one, thirty-two, forty-fi ve. Th e same is for bigger numbers. For example: one hundred fourteen, two hundred twenty-fi ve, nine hundred ninety nine.
Look at the following chart.
Indefinite and definite articles
A/an are used to count nouns and are used when the person doesn´t know which specific noun he or she are talking about. In spanish it would be un/una.
For example: She eats a cookie
An is used when the noun starts with a vowel. It is also used when the noun starts with a vowel sound (like in the word honest).
For example: I have an umbrella.
An/a is only used for singular count nouns. We do not use it for plural nouns. We do not use an indefinite article with plural nouns and uncountable nouns:
Look at the examples:
- She is wearing blue shoes (plural noun).
- She has short hair (uncountable noun).
We use possessive adjectives to show who owns or “possesses” something. The possessive adjectives are: my, your, his, her, its, our, your and their.
In the following chart you can see when to use each one.
- It’s is short for it is. For example: It’s raining outside = It is raining outside.
- Its is the possessive form of it. For example: The dog wants its food.
Ethnic and cultural characteristics
Mexico is a country with a rich ethnic diversity. Think about what ethnic groups there are in Mexico.
Ethnic and cultural characteristics refer to nationality, religion and ethnic groups. There is a richness of diversity in different countries and those aspects identify a culture, they are what distinguish a certain group of people from another. For example: language, believes and traditions.
In the following box you can check some of the most common ethnic groups and religions.
When you share personal information, it is important to know where you are from and which your nationality is, so that you can talk about your country and your culture. Study the following chart to know more about countries and nationalities.
Mexico is a country that is located in North America. It borders north (N) with the United States, to the west and south (S) by the Paci c Ocean, to the east (E) by the Gulf of Mexico and to the south east (SE) by Belize, Guatemala and the Caribbean Sea. Mexico has thirty-one states and a federal district which is the national capital: Mexico City.
The main landforms in Mexican territory are beaches, rivers, valleys, canyons, lagoons, mountains, lakes and islands. There are also different biomes such as deserts, forest, steppes and jungles. Look at the following images.
Physical characteristics describe how a person looks. In the next chart you can see useful vocabulary.
- To describe a person we use is: She is thin.
- When we talk about hair type we use has/have: She has curly hair.
When we are with our friends we usually talk about our family. For example: your mother, father, sister or brother. Family members are anyone that you are related to. In our society there are different types of families. Family is very important because they help and support you; they are the people we share many experiences with.
Study the vocabulary about family members in the next charts.
Note: All our family members are our relative (parientes). When we talk about both mother and father we say: parents (padres). When we talk about a both grandmother and grandfather we say: grandparents (abuelos). When we talk about both granddaughter and grandson we say: grandchildren (nietos).
Simple present has several uses in english.
Simple present is used to express an action that is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a schedule even or something that happens often. Look at the examples:
- I play soccer.
- The train leaves at 8 am.
- The Earth circles around the sun.
- I wake up at 6 am.
Simple statements or facts and generalizations
Simple present is used to indicate that the speaker believes a fact to be true, now, before and in the future. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things. Look at the examples:
- Cats like milk.
- Mexico City is the capital of Mexico.
- Windows are made of glass.
Scheduled events in the near future
Speakers occasionally use the simple present to talk about scheduled events in the near future. This is most commonly done when talking about public transportation, but it can be used with other scheduled events as well. Look at the examples:
- The train leaves at 4 pm.
- The party starts at 8 pm.
- We have classes tomorrow.
In the following chart you can see an example of a verb in simple present:
Learn about the spelling for the verbs in Grammar Box.
Grammar Box 3
|Spelling for the verbs/Escritura de los verbos|
|The spelling for the verb in the third person singular (he, she, it) differs depending on the ending of that verb/La escritura del verbo en tercera persona del singular (él, ella, eso) cambia dependiendo de su terminación.|
1. For verbs that end in o, ch, sh, ss, x or z we add es / En los verbos que terminan en o, ch, sh, ss, x o z agregamos es.
go – goes
catch – catches
wash – washes
kiss – kisses
fix – fixes
buzz – buzzes
2. For verbs that end in a consonant + y, we remove the y and add ies / En los verbos que terminan en una consonante + y, quitamos la y agregando ies.
marry – marries
study – studies
carry – carries
worry – worries
To make a negative sentence in english we normally use do not or does not and in contracted form we use: don’t or doesn’t . Look at Grammar Box 4.
Fuente: Secretaría de Educación Pública. (2015). Lengua adicional al español I. Ciudad de México.